Tag Archives: Bernini

VasiPropagandaFide

Bernini and Borromini: the Feud of Piazza di Spagna

The whole history of art is full of stories of “sworn enemies”. This time I would like to tell about Bernini and Borromini, the two greatest Baroque artists.

The setting of this story is the beautiful and well-known Piazza di Spagna. Each corner of this amazing place is full of anecdotes: the Spanish Steps, the Fountain, the column of the Immaculate Conception … But this story is about the last hidden corner, on the South side of the square.  Here is the Palazzo (palace) of Propaganda Fide.

Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide

The Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith is the institution of the Roman Curia in charge for the missionary activities and related stuff. It was instituted in 1622 by pope Gregory XV and even now is a very powerful congregation, so powerful that its prefect is called the Red Pope: influential as the pope but red as cardinal! :)

propaganda fide stamp

In 1623, soon after the foundation of the congregation, Gregory XV died. His successor was Urban VIII, the Barberini pope. His papacy was really a grand moment for the history of art, mostly thanks to Bernini’s genius. Bernini was Urban’s official, favorite, ideal artist. The St. Peter’s Baldacchino, the  Ecstasy of Santa Teresa, the Triton Fountain, the Fountain of the Rivers and… I think you got it. The best. Well done Urban! Even though for making his new Rome, he destroyed the ancient one and her many inestimable artworks. Rome’s adage is “What Barbarians didn’t do, the Barberini did”!
The adage is usually related to the bronze used for the Baldacchino, stolen from the Pantheon, but could be adopted for much more :)

Obviously Urban the VIII gave Bernini the task of designing the Palace for the congregation.

Bernini’s work…

Gian_Lorenzo_Bernini,_self-portrait,_c1623

To understand Bernini’s design you should look the facade on Piazza di Spagna: the palace, as conceived by Bernini, is characterized by straight and clear lines: a bricks structure with squared windows. On the top, the coat of arms of Urban the VIII: an empty (blue) field with three bees (wherever in Rome you see the bees  – also here in Piazza di Spagna on the fountain of the Barcaccia – that it’s a Urban’s work. It’s a kind of scavenger hunt!).

propaganda fide bernini

Bernini’s style reflects his personality in some ways: he was a “businessman”, rich, extroverted and very religious. For this reason many of his works are rigorous, because all the works are based on the same proportions of the human body: man was in fact created in God’s likeness, hence his proportion are universal, harmonic and divine.

… and Borromini’s one

Borromini

In 1644 Urban VIII died and Innocent X became the new pope, who substituted Bernini with Borromini on the task of the Propaganda Fide Palace. Anyway the facade on Piazza di Spagna was already done, so he worked on the interiors and on the side. Turn on  via di Propaganda and look the facade: here you can easily seen the difference! Contrary to Bernini, Borromini was anxious, solitary and quick-tempered. His style really reflects his personality: moved, dominated by curves, concavities and convexities. The facade really seems to pop out! And actually many historians of art sustain that this facade seems too much imposing to be seen by this small street: it would need a wider space to be appreciated… That’s not a coincidence.

Palazzo_Propaganda_Fide_Borromini

Guess what there was on the opposite side of the narrow via della Propaganda? …. Bernini’s house, where the artist and his family lived! Well, Borromini’s plan, or better we’ll say his dream, was to demolish the palace to create a wide appropriate square for his facade :)
So deep was the hate between the two artists that Borromini, not satisfied enough to have stolen the job to his rival – who actually was also forced to see the progress of works every day from his own windows – sculpted on the lateral facade of Palazzo di Propaganda Fide a pair of donkey ears. The reply was swift: Bernini sculpted on the shelf of his balcony a penis… yes, you got it, a penis :)

Unfortunately there’s no track of this skirmish because both artifacts were then removed to protect the “public decency“.

What you can still see are the different styles of the two greatest artists of Baroque Rome… Did you already decide between Bernini or Borromini? Well, I didn’t, it’s too hard!

This was just one of the many anecdotes about the rivalry between Bernini and Borromini, so let’s say to be continued


Do you want to feel the sensation to have feet in two different nations? First come to Rome :) Once here go to the main entrance of the Palazzo of Propaganda Fide and enter just with one leg: it’s done! The Palace has indeed the privilege of extraterritoriality, that means that it is part of the Vatican State: that’s why on the facade there’s the Vatican flag.

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Pictures Credits:

  • Palace of the Propagation of the Faith – etching by Giuseppe Vasi
  • Circular ownership stamp “C V P F” from the Collegium Urbanum de Propaganda Fide  – CC BY 2.0 – Kladcat
  • Gian Lorenzo Bernini – self-portrait, 1623
  • View of Palazzo di Propaganda Fide from Piazza di Spagna – CC BY 3.0 – Georges Jansoone
  • Francesco Borromini – portrait, 1630
  • View of Palazzo di Propaganda Fide from via di Propaganda – CC BY 3.0 – Manfred Heyde

 

 

 

 

chiesa sant'agnese

Saints and Prostitutes. The church of S. Agnese in Agone

Today’s tale is about the church of S. Agnese in Agone, in Piazza Navona, a story that spans between the Ancient and the Baroque Rome.

Piazza Navona and the Stadium of Domitian

This is probably one of the most popular square of Rome, with its distinctive shape and the famous fountain made by Bernini. The stretched shape, as you may know, comes from that of the stadium of Domitian (you already heard about him when we talked about the Colosseum, built by his family). Around 86 AD he had this stadium built for athletic competitions; this kind of games were called “agones” from a Greek word, and after it was probably named the square: it became “in agonis“, then “innagone“, “navone” and finally “Navona“. The buildings surrounding nowadays the square  are literally built ON the walls of the Roman stadium: around the square, in the lower levels of the new buildings, you can still see the travertine blocks of Domitian’s stadium.

pianta_map

Our story begins in the ancient Rome, when the stadium was still there.

Saint Agnes

According to tradition, around the beginning of the 4th century AD there was in Rome this beautiful and virtuous woman named Agnes. Ok, she was probably only 13 years old, so it would be better to say a child, a girl, but on that time, 13 years old was the age for getting married and having children, so we’ll say a woman, even if she wasn’t already.

Santa_Agnese_-_mosaico_Santa_Agnese_fuori_le_mura

Well, it happened that she was so beautiful that the Roman Prefect’s son fell in love with her. And this could still become a nice love story… probably the Prefect’s son was rich and could be considered a great catch. If only Agnes wasn’t Christian. And she hadn’t made vow of chastity, too. Hence she refused the Prefect’s son who, probably, went back crying to his father: the latter punished Agnes forcing her to become a Vestal Virgin.

The Vestal Virgins were a group of pagan priestesses (actually this was the only female priesthood in Rome), very powerful. They also had to made vow of chastity and that’s why Agnes was forced to become one of them. Also the story of the Vestal Virgins is really interesting, but there’s so much to say that I need another post…good idea for the future :)

Anyway the Vestal Virgins were pagan and therefore Agnes refused to join them because she was Christian.

And here we come to the stadium of Domitian because the Prefect of Rome, when Agnes refused to join the Vestal Virgins, condemned her to become a prostitute and that’s why she was brought to the stadium.

Prostitutes in the Ancient Rome

In the ancient Rome there were a lot of prostitutes and obviously brothels, called lupanares. This name comes from lupa, “she-wolf“, the slang for prostitute… And if you’re thinking to the most famous Rome’s she-wolf, the symbol of the city itself… well, yes, you’re probably right! Many historians think that the legend of the she-wolf was invented to hide and recall the real story, that probably Romulus and Remus were raised by a prostitute, Acca Larentia (who in the legend became the shepherd’s wife, who found the twins).
Anyway the lupanares were not the only workplace for prostitutes and we know that many of them used to sell themselves near the circuses and stadiums, waiting below the arches.

mosaico

Now it happens that the Latin word for arch is fornix (fornices plural) and, because the prostitutes were used to work there, this is the origin of the English word “fornication“, that you still use, maybe. At least the Red Hot Chilly Peppers do :)

The “uniform” of Roman prostitutes was the toga, the short male dress, so as to show more legs and make clear that they weren’t respectable women (worthy to wear the typical female clothes: a long dress, the stola, and a mantle, the palla). Wearing a toga was a so distinctive sign of  licentiousness that if a woman was found guilty of adultery, one of the punishments was to wear the toga. In addition, prostitutes also worn a red wig.

How Agnes became Saint

Going back to Saint Agnes, she was brought to the stadium to become a prostitute. But because of her holiness, the first man who tried to touch her was soon blinded by God (but don’t worry for him… Saint Agnes was so saint that she later prayed God to save him, and he had back his sight).
Did the Prefect recognized Saint Agnes’s holiness? No way! On the contrary he accused her of  being a witch and condemned her to be burned at the stake. And that’s still not the end of our story, because soon after she was put, naked, on the fire, her hair suddenly grew up to cover her nudity and the fire split.

statua sant'agnese

Neither this time the Prefect quit with her: she was finally beheaded and, yes, this time she died.

The Church of Sant’Agnese in Agone

Hence, according to tradition, Saint Agnes was martyred in the arches of the stadium and here a small shrine was built already in the 8th century AD.

In the same spot, in the sixteen hundreds, was built the present church, projected by the famous baroque artist Francesco Borromini, for the pope Innocent X Pamphilj. Many are the legends about the construction of the church and the famous Fountain of the Rivers, built by Bernini just in front of it, mostly related to the rivalry between the two artists…but we need an entire other post for all this :)

Anyway, in the meanwhile, if you’ll visit Piazza Navona, enter the church and  go to the chapel on the right: it’s dedicated to Saint Agnes and here is preserved her most sacred relic: her head!

testa sant'agnese

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Pictures Credits